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CarotidArtery Bifurcation
One of the major computational challenges in cardiovascular fluid mechanics is accurate modeling of the fluidstructure interaction (FSI) between the blood flow and arterial walls. The blood flow depends on the arterial geometry, and the deformation of the arterial wall depends on the blood flow. The mathematical equations governing the blood flow and arterial deformations need to be solved simultaneously, with proper kinematic and dynamic conditions coupling the two physical systems.
The arterial geometry (see Fig. 1) used here is an approximation to the imagebased geometry found in [1], with the arterial diameter approximated from [2] and the wall thickness coming from [3]. The arterial wall (i.e. the structural mechanics part of the problem) is modeled with the membrane element.
The numerical methods used in this computation were introduced and implemented on parallel computing platforms by the T*AFSM. The set of numerical methods introduced by the T*AFSM over the years and used in this computation includes the DSD/SST formulation [47], the quasidirect FSI method [8, 9], the stabilized spacetime FSI (SSTFSI) technique [10], and special techniques for arterial FSI computations [11]. The inflow velocity used in the computation during the cardiac cycle has the same form as that shown at Cerebral Aneurysm  Variable Wall Thickness, High Blood Pressure. The blood pressure profile is similar to the normal blood pressure profile shown at Cerebral Aneurysm  Variable Wall Thickness, High Blood Pressure.
For more details on this computation, see [11].

Fig. 1. Arterial geometry. For details, see [11]. 

Fig. 2. Bloodflow patterns at an instant during the cardiac cycle. For details, see [11]. 









Fig. 3. Flow field at various instants during the cardiac cycle. Velocity vectors colored by magnitude. For details, see [11]. 
References
1. N.E. Piersol, S. Lee, W. Kalata, F. Loth, P.F. Fischer, G. Leaf, N. Alperin and H.S. Bassiouny, "Automated Simulation of Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Patterns Inside a Healthy Carotid Bifurcation", http://web.mit.edu/selee/www/menu1/research/healthy_carotid.html.
2. J. Krejza, M. Arkuszewski, S.E. Kasner, J. Weigele, A. Ustymowicz, R.W. Hurst, B.L. Cucchiara and S.R. Messe, "Carotid Artery Diameter in Men and Women and the Relation to Body and Neck Size", Stroke, 37 (2006) 11031105.
3. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/Press_releases/2004/11_09c_04.html.
4. T.E. Tezduyar, "Stabilized Finite Element Formulations for Incompressible Flow Computations", Advances in Applied Mechanics, 28 (1992) 144.
5. T.E. Tezduyar, M. Behr and J. Liou, "A New Strategy for Finite Element Computations Involving Moving Boundaries and Interfaces  The DeformingSpatialDomain/SpaceTime Procedure: I. The Concept and the Preliminary Numerical Tests", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 94 (1992) 339351.
6. T.E. Tezduyar, M. Behr, S. Mittal and J. Liou, "A New Strategy for Finite Element Computations Involving Moving Boundaries and Interfaces  The DeformingSpatialDomain/SpaceTime Procedure: II. Computation of Freesurface Flows, Twoliquid Flows, and Flows with Drifting Cylinders", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 94 (1992) 353371.
7. T.E. Tezduyar, "Computation of Moving Boundaries and Interfaces and Stabilization Parameters", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 43 (2003) 555575.
8. T.E. Tezduyar, S. Sathe, R. Keedy and K. Stein, "SpaceTime Techniques for Finite Element Computation of Flows with Moving Boundaries and Interfaces", Proceedings of the III International Congress on Numerical Methods in Engineering and Applied Sciences, Monterrey, Mexico, CDROM (2004).
9. T.E. Tezduyar, S. Sathe, R. Keedy and K. Stein, "SpaceTime Finite Element Techniques for Computation of FluidStructure Interactions", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 195 (2006) 20022027.
10. T.E. Tezduyar and S. Sathe, "Modeling of FluidStructure Interactions with the SpaceTime Finite Elements: Solution Techniques", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 54 (2007) 855900.
11. T.E. Tezduyar, S. Sathe, T. Cragin, B. Nanna, B.S. Conklin, J. Pausewang and M. Schwaab, "Modeling of FluidStructure Interactions with the SpaceTime Finite Elements: Arterial Fluid Mechanics", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 54 (2007) 901922.
